Cannabis 101
Terpenes, Their Uses, Effects and Medical Benefits Explained

We have compiled a list of the most common terpenes found in cannabis, what they are, their attributes and medical benefits.

3-Carene

3-Carene

Delta 3 Carene, or just 3 Carene, is a bicyclic monoterpene that has a sweet odor reminiscent of cedar. Delta 3 Carene has a slightly citrus flavor like lemon and has been found to help treat inflammation, reduce bodily fluids like tears or mucus and has been shown to also aid with Alzheimer’s.


Medical Benefits

Anti-Inflammatory

Helps reduce inflammation and swelling

Bone Repair

Has been shown to aid bone repair

Formula

C10H16


Found In

Basil, Bell Pepper, Cedar, Pine, Rosemary


Other Names

alpha Bisabolol

alpha Bisabolol

Bisabolol, or a-bisabolol, is a natural monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol.


Medical Benefits

Anti-Inflammatory

Helps reduce inflammation and swelling

Anti-microbial

Helps reduce microbe ability to cause infection

Anti-irritant

Helps relieve skin irritation

Formula

C15H26O


Found In

Chamomile


Other Names

alpha Pinene

alpha Pinene

Pinene is a monoterpene that has smells woody, green and pine-like. It is the most commonly found terpene in nature and has 2 isomers (subcategories), a-PInene and b-Pinene. a-PInene has 2 entantiomers, or variations, (1S,5S)- or (?)-a-pinene which is more common is European pines and (1R,5R)- or (+)-a-pinene, which is more common in North American pines. Pinene is one of the major constituents of turpentine. a-Pinene is one of the more abundant terpenes found in cannabis and has many uses and medical benefits. Like a-Pinene, a-PInene has shown to be an effective treatment for infectious bronchitis virus as well as a bronchiodialator for asthmas sufferers.


Medical Benefits

Pain Relief and inflammation

Has been shown to be an antinociceptive which blocks the sensation of pain, much like an anesthetic. It also is a powerful anti-inflammatory agent and natural pain reliever.

Cancer

Helps reduce the the growth of many types of cancer.

Bronchiodialator

Helps reduce asthma related symptoms.

Bacteria

Helps reduce bacterial infections.

Antioxident

Helps remove/reduce potentially damaging oxidizing agents.

Memory Aid

Has been shown to increase memory retention.

Formula

C10H16


Found In

Conifers, Camphorweed and Sagebrush.


Other Names

(+)-?-pinene, (-)-?-pinene

alpha Terpineol

alpha Terpineol

alpha Terpineol is an isomer, or variation, of Terpineol. Terpineol is a mixture of its 4 sisomers. alpha Terineol is by far the most abundant isomer in Terpineol comprising up to 85-90%. of the total mixure in most cases. It has a floral and lilac aroma and has very relaxing and sedating effects.


Medical Benefits

Sleep Aid

Exhibits heavy sedative effects and helps reduce insomnia in higher doses.

Muscle Relaxant

Helps to muscles relax, avoiding contraction. This is beneficial for condtions like Muscle Cramps, Multiple Sclerosis and Muscle Spacticity.

Formula

C10H18O


Found In

Lilac, Apples, Blueberries, Limes


Other Names

(+)-alpha-Terpineol; (R)-(+)-alpha-Terpineol; (R)-p-Menth-1-en-8-ol; (R)-alpha-terpineol; 7785-53-7; (R)-2-(4-Methyl-3-cyclohexenyl)isopropanol

beta Caryophyllene

beta Caryophyllene

beta-Caryophyllene, commonly referred to more generally as Caryophyllene, is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene. It is a major constituent of many essential oils, especially clove oil. beta-Caryophyllene is characterized by its spicy, peppery smell and flavor. beta-Caryophyllene is a selective agonist of the CB2 receptor acting as an Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive, neuroprotective, anxiolytic and antidepressant and anti-alcoholism.


Medical Benefits

Pain Relief and inflammation

Has been shown to be an antinociceptive which blocks the sensation of pain, much like an anesthetic. It also is a powerful anti-inflammatory agent and natural pain reliever.

Bacteria

Helps reduce bacterial infections.

Depression

Helps reduce the symptoms of Depression.

Antioxident

Helps remove/reduce potentially damaging oxidizing agents.

Cancer

Helps reduce the the growth of many types of cancer.

Anxiety

Helps reduce the symptoms of Anxiety.

Formula

C15H24


Found In

Nearly all plants but high concentrations in peppery plants like the Piper nigrum.


Other Names

?-Caryophyllene; trans-(1R,9S)-8-Methylene-4,11,11-trimethylbicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene

beta Pinene

beta Pinene

beta-Pinene is a monoterpene that has smells woody, green and pine-like. beta-Pinene is the a toxic isomer of Pinene.


Medical Benefits

Bronchiodialator

Helps reduce asthma related symptoms.

Formula

C10H16


Found In

Conifers, Camphorweed and Sagebrush.


Other Names

2(10)-Pinene; Nopinene; Pseudopinene

beta Terpineol

beta Terpineol

beta-Terpineol is found in cardamom. beta-Terpineol is a flavouring ingredient.


Medical Benefits

Bacteria

Helps reduce bacterial infections.

Immunostimulant

Stimulates the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components.

Formula

C10H18O


Found In

Cardamom


Other Names

1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexanal; 1-methyl-4-isopropenylcyclohexan-1-ol; 4-isopropenyl-1-methyl-1-cyclohexanol; beta-terpineol; beta-terpinol; p-menth-8-en-1-ol

Borneol

Borneol

Borneol is a bicyclic organic compound and a terpene derivative. The hydroxyl group in this compound is placed in an endo position. There are two different enantiomers of borneol. Both d-(+)-borneol and l-(–)-borneol are found in nature.


Medical Benefits

Anti-Inflammatory

Helps reduce inflammation and swelling

Antibacterial

Helps reduce bacteria growth

Analgesic

Helps relieve pain

Anti-fibrosis

Helps the body’s fibrosis response to injury

Antioxidant

Helps prevent oxidation damage to our body’s molecules

Anti-fungal

Slows fungus growth

Formula

C10H18O


Found In

Camphor, Rosemary and Mint plants.


Other Names

Caryophyllene Oxide

Caryophyllene Oxide

Caryophyllene Oxide is a sesquiterpene that is approved as a food flavor additive and preservative for foods, drugs and cosmetics. Caryophyllene Oxide is also a strong broad spectrum antifungal in vitro.


Medical Benefits

Antifungal

Has shown to work effectively as a broad spectrum antifungal.

Anticoagulant

Helps reduce blood clotting.

Formula

C15H24


Found In

Nearly all plants but high concentrations in peppery plants like the Piper nigrum.


Other Names

Eucalyptol

Eucalyptol

Eucalyptol is a natural organic compound that is a colorless liquid. It is a cyclic ether and a monoterpenoid.


Formula


Found In


Other Names

Humulene

Humulene

Humulene, also known as alpha Humulene (a-humulene) and alpha caryophyllene a-caryophyllene), is a monocyclic monoterpene. It was first discovered in essential oil of hops from which the terpene derives its name. Humulene is an isomer of beta-caryophyllene and the 2 are often found together in plants and in cannabis. Humulene is the reason your beer smells 'hoppy' and is in highest concentrations on Noble Hops varieties while is lower in cencentration in bitter varieties.


Medical Benefits

Pain Relief and inflammation

Has been shown to be an antinociceptive which blocks the sensation of pain, much like an anesthetic. It also is a powerful anti-inflammatory agent and natural pain reliever.

Bacteria

Helps reduce bacterial infections.

Antifungal

Has shown to work effectively as a broad spectrum antifungal.

Antioxident

Helps remove/reduce potentially damaging oxidizing agents.

Weight Loss

Has been shown to help suppress hunger and appetites.

Cancer

Helps reduce the the growth of many types of cancer.

Antifibrosis

Reduction in thickening and scarring of connective tissue typically after an injury.

Formula

C15H24


Found In


Other Names

Limonene

Limonene

Limonene is a terpene, more specifically, a cyclic monoterpene with an odor and flavor like citrus and is described as sweet, tangy and bitter. Terpenes are what make food, perfumes, plants and just about everything organic, smell. Everything has a different terpene profile, each terpene lending different properties. Limonene is named for and responsible for that all-to-familiar lemon/citrus odor amongst many household cleaners and perfumes and the flavoring in candy, drinks, and can most commonly be found in the rinds of citrus fruits such as limes, lemons and oranges. As a monoterpene, Limonene is the chemical precursor to Carvone, the main component of spearmint and dill, another highly energizing and mood lifting terpene. In cannabis strains, Limonene is often the most abundant terpene in strains associated with being good for depression, anxiety and social activity.


Medical Benefits

Anxiety

Limonene has many medicinal benefits and works in conjuction with cannabinoids in many ways to work as a strong antidepressant and antiolyxic effectively mitigating the stress and anxiety associated with depression and anxiety1 2 3 4 5. THC's naturally uplifting euphoric effect amplifies the effective power of limonene to make high limonene strains some of the best in the world for treating depression. Limonene has shown promising anxiolytic effects mitigating the body's response to anxiety so effectively is has been recommended for treatment of anxiety.

Depression

Limonene has shown to increase social activity in subjects effectively improving the mood, decreasing feelings of anxiousness and increasing levels of calmness. There has been shown to be a link between inflammation and depression. Limonene's anti-inflammatory properties may lend to the antidepressant nature of the terpene.11

Cancer

Limonene also works as an anti-proliferative reducing the cells ability to mutate and retarding cancer cell growth 8. Consumption of d-Limonene in either supplemental form or as freshly squeezed and pulp-containing lemonade has been shown to reduce the formation of some tumor growths and alleviate fat buildup in the liver induced by diet.

Antifungal

Limonene is a powerful antifungal and used as a natural remedy for yeast infections and fungal infections like Athlete's Foot. As an Anti-inflammatory, Limonene helps to reduce inflammed muscles.

Weight loss

It is also promotes weight loss by mildly supressing your appetite.

Immune system

It also acts as an immunostimulant and acid reflux reducer, aiding your digestion and helping to regulate your daily well being.

Formula

C10H16


Found In

Lemons, Limes, Oranges, Grapefruits, Kiwis and other citrus fruits in the highest concentrations.


Other Names

4-Isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene p-Menth-1,8-diene
Racemic: DL-limonene; Dipentene

Linalool

Linalool

Linalool, also known as r-linalool, licareol and linalyl alcohol, is a terpene with the smell of lavender. Linalool is used to scent 60-80% of perfumed hygiene products, soaps, detergents, shampoos and lotions. Linalool has 2 entantiomers, or variations, S-(+)-linalool and (R)-linalool, the latter being the more common terpene within the context of cannabis. (R)-linalool is the main constituant of lavender and has been shown to give users a calm, relaxing and even sedating feeling. Linalool is a chemical intermediate and necessary to produce Vitamin E within the body. It also acts as an effective insect repellant against cockroaches, fleas and fruit flies.

Linalool is one of the more abundant terpenes in Granddaddy Purple (GDP) and many heavier indica strains. It is believed to be help propel the 'couchlock' effect from many indicas along with other terpenes like Myrcene and Borneol.


Medical Benefits

Inflamaation and Pain Relief

Has been shown to be an antinociceptive which blocks the sensation of pain, much like an anesthetic. It also is a powerful anti-inflammatory agent and natural pain reliever.1

Depression

Helps reduce the symptoms of Depression.2

Anxiety

Helps reduce the symptoms of Anxiety.3

Seizures

Reduces and seizures and convulsions.4

Psychosis

Tranquilizing properties of linalool relieve symptoms of psychosis.5

Sleep Aid

Exhibits heavy sedative effects and helps reduce insomnia in higher doses.6

Formula

C10H18O


Found In

Lavender, Bay Laurels, Sweet Basil.


Other Names

?-linalool, linalyl alcohol, linaloyl oxide, p-linalool, allo-ocimenol, and 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-o

Myrcene

Myrcene

Myrcene is the smallest of the monoterpenes and has a flavor and smell described as earthy, fruity and clove-like. Monoterpenes are the building blocks of other larger and more complex terpenoids and cannabinoids. Found abundantly in hops, sweet basil, mangos and cannabis, myrcene is responsible for some of those unexpected effects from consuming cannabis as it acts synergistically with other cannabinoids and terpenoids to enhance effects and beneficial qualities of the terpenes contained within the strain.


Medical Benefits

Analgesic

Myrcene has is a great analgesic pain reliever reducing the pain of symtpoms like headaches, body aches, muscle aches and other non-neurological conditions.12

Anti-inflammatory

As an Anti-inflammatory, Myrcene helps to reduce inflammed muscles which aids in its analgesic properties and helps with pain conditions like Arthritis.

Muscle Spasms

Myrcene is an antispasmodic which helps muscles relax, avoiding contraction. This is beneficial for condtions like Muscle Cramps, Multiple Sclerosis and Muscle Spacticity.

Antibacterial

Myrcene has antibacterial properties helping reduce the amount of bacteria.

Anti-diabetic

Myrcene has proven anti-diabetic properties which helps your body regulate glucose levels.

Sleep Aid

Myrcene is best known for its sedative effects and ability to aid sleep, effectively reducing insomnia in many cases. For higher sedative effects, strains with higher percentages of Myrcene (0.7% - 1.5%) will have greater sleep aiding effects.

Cancer

Myrcene also effectively acts as an anti-proliferative, reducing cancers ability to mutate healthy cells and reducing tumor sizes.

Antipsychotic

Myrcene's ability to help psychosis comes from its tranquilizing properties that relax the largest muscle in the body, the mind.

Formula

C10H16


Found In

Mangos, Thyme, Myrcia, Hops Lemon Grass, Sweet Basil and more.


Other Names

7-Methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadiene

Phellandrene

Phellandrene

Phellandrene is the name for a pair of organic compounds that have a similar molecular structure and similar chemical properties. alpha-Phellandrene and beta-phellandrene are cyclic monoterpenes and are double-bond isomers. In alpha-phellandrene, both double bonds are endocyclic and in beta-phellandrene, one of them is exocyclic. Both are insoluble in water, but miscible with ether. alpha-Phellandrene was named after Eucalyptus phellandra, now called Eucalyptus radiata, from which it can be isolated. It is also a constituent of the essential oil of Eucalyptus dives. beta-Phellandrene has been isolated from the oil of water fennel and Canada balsam oil. The phellandrenes are used in fragrances because of their pleasing aromas. The odor of beta-phellandrene has been described as peppery-minty and slightly citrusy.


Formula


Found In


Other Names

Terpineol-4-ol

Terpineol-4-ol

Terpineol-4-ol is a terpene that smells like Nutmeg and has numerous medical benefits. Terpineol-4-ol can be found in highest concentrations with nutmeg and is used to treat multiple skin related diseases like blepharitis, rosacea, demodex, meibomian gland dysfunction, chalazia and dry eye.


Medical Benefits

Formula

C10H18O


Found In

Nutmeg, Junipers and Tea Tree


Other Names

Terpinen-4-ol; 4-Carvomenthenol; P-Menth-1-en-4-ol; 4-Terpineol; 1-Terpinen-4-ol; 562-74-3

Terpinolene

Terpinolene

Terpinolene is a sweet, woody, pine smelling terpene. It is part of the terpinene group which all have the same chemical strcuture but vary in their placement of the carbon-carbon double bonds. Terpinolene has antibacterial, antifungal and antioxident properties as well as anti-proliferative effects on cancerous cells. It also works in conjection with other terpenes like Linalool and cannabinoids like cannabinol to aid sleep.


Medical Benefits

Bacteria

Helps reduce bacterial infections.

Antifungal

Has shown to work effectively as a broad spectrum antifungal.

Antioxident

Helps remove/reduce potentially damaging oxidizing agents.

Cancer

Helps reduce the the growth of many types of cancer.

Sleep Aid

Exhibits mild sedative effects and helps reduce insomnia in higher doses and in combination with other terpenes like Linalool or cannabinoids ilke Cannabinol (CBN).

Formula

C10H16


Found In

Apples, Cumin, Lilac and Tea tree.


Other Names

4-isopropylidene-1-methylcyclohexene; ?-terpinene; delta terpinene; d-terpinene

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Disclaimer: Medical cannabis science is in a continually evolving state. To ensure Ibudtender.com has the most up-to-date information available, we constantly update our site to reflect the latest information. The information provided is not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, mitigate or prevent any diseases. All information available has not evaluated by the FDA and any claims by any product companies are not endorsed by Ibudtender.com or any of its subsidiaries. Do not use this material to diagnose or treat a health condition or disease without consulting a qualified healthcare provider.



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